Distinguishing between ser, estar, and haber is notoriously difficult for learners of Spanish, as most languages have only one word for the verb to be. This article will explain the main differences between the three verbs.
1. Ser or estar?
“Ser” is used to describe characteristics that are deemed essential or permanent, whereas “estar” to describe states or locations. However, this rule may be difficult to implement without further explanation. Both of the following sentences are grammatically correct, but they have slightly different meanings:
- La hamburgesa es muy buena.
- to hamburgesa está muy buena.
The first sentence implies that hamburger is tasty in general. The second sentence refers to a specific hamburger and usually would be uttered during eating said hamburger. The verb “estar” frequently has a temporal dimension, whereas “ser” is used in a-temporal contexts.
The verb estar is used to express states that are pertinent to a specific moment in time. For instance, you may say:
- Estoy nerviosa. (I’m nervous.)
- La familia está muy contenta. (The family is happy.)
Always use estar with the adverbs bien and mal.
- Estoy bien. (I’m fine.)
Also use estar to determine the locations of things or people:
- Maria está en el banco. (Maria is in the bank.)
- Guadalajara está cerca de la costa Pacifica de México. (Guadalajara is near the Pacific coast of Mexico.)
However, this rule has an important exception; we use “ser” to refer to the locations of events For instance, you should say:
- La fiesta es en mi casa. The party is in my house.)
El concierto es en el auditorio. (The concert is in the auditorium.)
We use the verb ser in the following situations to express nationality or origins (es peruano), possessions (es mi libro), materials (la mesa es de madera), inherent characteristics (Juan es amable), religion (soy católico), professions (Ana es profesora), time phrases (es tarde, son las dos, es febrero), price (son 500 dólares).
In addition, some words change meaning depending on whether, used with ser or estar:
- está aburrido – he is bored;
- es aburrido- he is boring;
- estoy lista – I’m ready;
- soy lista – I’m clever;
- está mala – she is sick;
- es mala – she is evil;
- está verde – it’s not ripe;
- es verde – it’s green;
- está rojo- he’s embarrassed;
- es rojo- it is red.
2. Estar or haber?
The principle difference between the verbs estar and haber is that the former refers to location, whereas the latter to existence. ‘Haber’ is only used in the third person singular and can be translated into English as there is / there are. Compare the following sentences:
- No hay rey. (There is no king.)
- El rey no está (The king isn’t here.)
- El jugete está en la silla. (The toy is on the chair.)
- Hay jugete en la silla. (There is a toy on the chair.)
If you want to refer to known entities use estar – we normally don’t use the verb “haber” with nouns preceded by a definite article, a demonstrative adjective, or a possessive adjective.
The verb to be can be expressed in Spanish by three words ser, estar, and haber. Learners of Spanish frequently confuse the three. The main difference between them is that ser refers to inherent a-temporal characteristics, estar describes states and locations, and haber is used to express existence.